Here is a list of jewelry terminology, words, and meanings that you might see when shopping with HarperCrown.

Alloy: A mixture of metals combined to enhance properties such as strength, durability, and color. Common in jewelry to create materials like white gold or sterling silver.
Amethyst: A type of quartz that comes in shades of purple, from light lavender to deep violet. Amethyst is popular in jewelry for its color and clarity.
Annealing: A heat process used to soften metal, making it more flexible and easier to shape. This is often a crucial step in metalworking and jewelry making.
Appraisal: The process of evaluating a piece of jewelry to determine its value. Appraisals are often done for insurance purposes or to verify authenticity.
Aquamarine: A blue to greenish-blue gemstone that is a variety of beryl. It is prized for its clear, watery colors and is often used in engagement rings and other fine jewelry.
Art Deco: A style of design that originated in the 1920s and 1930s, characterized by geometric shapes, streamlined forms, and sometimes vibrant colors. Art Deco jewelry is highly sought after for its distinctive style.
Assay: A test to determine the purity of a metal, often performed on gold, silver, and platinum jewelry. The assay marks indicate the metal content and are a guarantee of purity.
Aventurine: A form of quartz characterized by its translucency and the presence of platy mineral inclusions that give a shimmering or glistening effect known as aventurescence, often used in jewelry.

 A loop or hook component attached to a pendant, enabling it to be hung from a chain or cord in necklaces.
Band: A type of ring that is typically uniform in width, often used for wedding rings or as part of a stack of rings worn together.
Bar Setting: Similar to the channel setting, but the stones are separated and held in place by metal bars, allowing more light to enter the stones from the sides. This setting offers a modern, geometric appearance.
Baroque: A term used to describe pearls or other gemstones that are irregularly shaped or not perfectly round. Baroque pearls are valued for their unique shapes and textures.
Bead: A small, decorative object that is pierced for threading or stringing. Beads can be made of various materials including metal, glass, stone, and wood, and are used in a variety of jewelry pieces.
Bead Cap: A decorative element that is placed on either end of a bead to enhance its beauty. Bead caps can also help to secure beads in place.
Bead Charm: A charm designed as a bead with a hole through it, allowing it to slide onto a bracelet or necklace. 
Bezel Setting: A method of setting a stone in which a metal rim holds the stone in place. The rim, or bezel, surrounds the stone and is pressed and shaped over its edge, securing it.
Bib Necklace: A statement necklace that sits high on the chest and spreads out in width, often resembling the shape of a bib. It typically features multiple strands or a wide spread of embellishments.
Birthstone: A gemstone associated with the month of a person's birth. Each month has one or more birthstones associated with it, and these stones are often worn in jewelry as a personal symbol.
Box Chain: A type of chain characterized by square links that are connected to create a smooth, continuous chain. It is known for its durability and is often used for pendants.
Brilliance: The amount of light reflected from the interior and surface of a gemstone, particularly diamonds. High brilliance is a desirable quality, indicating a well-cut gem.
Brooch: A decorative jewelry piece designed to be attached to garments, typically using a pin clasp. Brooches can serve both ornamental and functional purposes, such as fastening cloaks or scarves.
Brushed Finish: A texturing technique applied to metal surfaces, resulting in a matte, non-reflective finish. This is achieved by brushing the metal with a fine abrasive material.
Buffing: A polishing process that creates a high shine on the surface of metal or gemstones. Buffing uses a soft cloth wheel and polishing compounds to achieve a smooth, reflective finish.
Burnishing: A finishing technique that involves rubbing the surface of metal with a hard, smooth tool to compact the surface and produce a high shine.
Burnout Oven: A type of kiln used in the casting process to heat the investment mold and melt away the wax model, leaving a hollow cavity for the metal to be cast.

Cabochon: A gemstone that has been polished but not faceted, resulting in a smooth, rounded surface that is often domed.
Cameo: A method of carving an object such as an engraved gem, item of jewelry, or vessel made in a technique that creates a raised (positive) relief image.
Carat (ct): A unit of weight for gemstones, equivalent to 200 milligrams, or the purity of gold, where 24 carats is pure gold.
Casting: A process of shaping metal by melting it and pouring it into a mold. Once cooled, the metal takes the shape of the mold. This is commonly used for creating complex shapes and designs in jewelry.
Casting Machine: Equipment used in the process of casting, where molten metal is poured into a mold to create a jewelry piece. There are various types, including centrifugal and vacuum casting machines, which help ensure a clean fill and reduce air bubbles.
Centrifugal Casting: A casting technique where a mold is spun at high speeds in a centrifugal casting machine. The centrifugal force helps to fill the mold cavity with molten metal and improve the quality of the casting.
Chain: Jewelry made of connected links or rings, designed to be worn around the neck, wrist, ankle, or waist.
Chain Extender: A short length of chain that can be added to a necklace or bracelet to extend its length, providing adjustability to the wearer.
Chandelier Earrings: Earrings with a design that resembles a chandelier, often long, elaborate, and dangling.
Channel Setting: A method of setting stones where the gems are set into a channel formed by two strips of metal, providing a smooth surface.
Charm: A small ornament worn on a bracelet or necklace, often symbolic or with personal significance.
Chasing: A technique used to decorate the surface of metal with tools, creating texture or patterns by indenting rather than removing metal.
Choker: A necklace that fits tightly around the neck.
Clarity: A measure of the internal flaws or inclusions within a gemstone, particularly diamonds. The fewer the inclusions, the higher the clarity and value.
Clasp: A device used to fasten the ends of a necklace, bracelet, or other piece of jewelry.
Clip Charm: A charm with a clasp mechanism that allows it to clip onto a bracelet or necklace. Clip charms can also serve as spacers and are useful for evenly distributing charms or securing them in place.
Cluster Setting: A setting that groups several stones closely together, often to mimic the appearance of a larger gem.
Cocktail Ring: An oversized, statement ring, typically featuring a large gemstone or elaborate design.
Collet: A metal setting that encircles the base of a gemstone, securing it in place.
Color: In gemstones, refers to the hue, saturation, and tone. In metals, refers to the appearance (e.g., yellow gold, rose gold).
Crimp Bead: A small bead made of soft metal that is squeezed shut around a wire or cord to secure a clasp at the end of a strand or to keep beads in place.
Crimp Cover: A decorative cover that looks like a bead and is used to cover crimp beads for a more finished appearance.

Cubic Zirconia (CZ): A synthetic crystal used as a cost-effective alternative to diamonds, known for its brilliance and clarity.
Cuff Bracelet: A bracelet that is wider and more rigid than a standard bracelet, designed to fit snugly around the wrist.
Culet: The small facet at the bottom of a gemstone, intended to protect the tip from chipping.
Curb Chain: A style of chain where interconnected, uniformly sized links are twisted and often diamond-cut so they lie flat along a surface.
Custom Jewelry: Jewelry that is specially designed and made for a specific individual, often to meet particular preferences or requirements.
Cut: In gemology, refers to the shaping and faceting of a gemstone to enhance its brilliance and appearance.

Dangle Charm:
 A type of charm that hangs from a small loop and moves freely, often adding movement to charm bracelets or necklaces.
Dangle Earrings: Earrings that hang below the earlobe and move freely. They can vary in length and are often embellished with beads, gemstones, or charms.
Dapping: A technique used to form metal into a domed or curved shape using a dapping block and punches.
Deco: Short for Art Deco, a style characterized by geometric patterns, bold colors, and streamlined shapes. Art Deco jewelry is known for its modern, sophisticated design that originated in the 1920s and 1930s.
Delicate: Jewelry that is finely detailed or thin and lightweight, often designed for subtle elegance and everyday wear.
Demi-Parure: A matching set of jewelry with fewer pieces than a full parure, typically including two or three items such as a necklace and earrings or a bracelet and brooch.
Density: In gemology, the measure of how heavy a gemstone is compared to its size. Density can help identify a gemstone since different stones have different densities.
Designer Jewelry: Jewelry that has been designed and often made by a well-known designer or design house. These pieces are typically unique, high-quality, and higher-priced.
Diamond:  A precious gemstone made of crystalline carbon, renowned for its hardness and high refractive index, leading to its characteristic sparkle. Diamonds are one of the most coveted gemstones used in jewelry.
Diamond Cut: Refers to the quality of a diamond's cut, including its proportions, symmetry, and polish. The cut affects a diamond's brilliance; the better the cut, the more the diamond sparkles.
Die Struck: A method of jewelry making where metal is shaped by being stamped with a die, resulting in precise, detailed designs. This process is often used for creating settings and decorative elements.
Dome: A jewelry piece, often a ring or brooch, with a prominent, rounded top. Dome-shaped pieces are voluminous and make a bold statement.
Drop Earrings: Earrings that "drop" just below the earlobe and are typically stationary, often featuring a single gemstone or decorative element.
Durability: A measure of how well a gemstone or metal can withstand wear and tear. Durability is an important consideration in choosing jewelry for everyday wear.
DWT (Pennyweight): A unit of measure for the weight of precious metals. One pennyweight is equal to 1/20 of a troy ounce or approximately 1.555 grams

Earring Backs: The component of an earring designed to secure the earring in place. Common types include push-backs (also known as butterfly backs), screw backs, and lever backs.
Ear Climbers: A style of earrings that extend from the earlobe up the outer edge of the ear, creating the illusion of multiple piercings. They are also known as ear crawlers or ear sweeps.
Ear Cuffs: A type of earring that clips onto the outer edge of the ear, requiring no piercing. Ear cuffs can vary in design from simple bands to elaborate, decorative pieces.
Ear Wire: A shaped wire that goes through the pierced ear, designed to hold earrings in place. Common types include fish hooks, lever backs, and stud posts.
Electroforming: A metal forming process that uses electric current to deposit metal onto a wax or other non-metallic mold. Once the desired thickness is achieved, the mold is removed, leaving a detailed metal object.
Electroplating: A process that uses electrical current to coat on jewelry with a thin layer of metal. This technique is used in jewelry making to apply a surface layer of gold, silver, or other metals.
Electroplating Machine: A device used for coating a metal object with a layer of a different metal through the process of electroplating. This is often used to apply gold, silver, rhodium, or other metals to jewelry pieces for aesthetic or protective purposes.
Embossing: A technique used to create a raised or three-dimensional pattern on a metal surface. This can be achieved through stamping, hammering, or using a die.
Emerald: A precious gemstone of green color, belonging to the beryl family. Emeralds are valued for their rich color and are considered one of the "big four" gemstones, alongside diamonds, rubies, and sapphires.
Emerald Cut: A rectangular or square-shaped cut with truncated corners and a broad and flat plane that highlights the clarity of the gemstone. This cut is popular for diamonds and emeralds.
Enamel: A glass-like material applied to metal surfaces and then fused using high heat. Enameling creates a durable, glossy finish that can add color and design to jewelry.
Enamel Charm: A charm featuring a design or pattern created with enamel, a colored glass powder that is fused to the surface of the metal at high temperatures. Enamel charms are valued for their vibrant colors and detailed designs.
End Cap: A finding used to finish the end of a cord or chain neatly. It can also provide a loop for attaching a clasp or other components.

Engraving: The process of carving or cutting designs into the surface of metal, stone, or another material. Engraving can be decorative or used to inscribe personal messages and details.
Engraving Machine: A tool used for inscribing designs, letters, or patterns onto the surface of metal, gemstones, or other materials. Modern engravers may use laser technology for precision work.
Estate Jewelry: Previously owned jewelry, which may be antique, vintage, or simply used. Estate jewelry often refers to high-quality pieces from another era.
Eternity Band: A ring set with a continuous line of identically cut gemstones, usually diamonds, to symbolize everlasting love. Eternity bands are popular as wedding bands or anniversary gifts.
Ethical Jewelry: Jewelry that is responsibly sourced and produced, with consideration for environmental impact, labor practices, and sourcing of materials.
Eye Clean: A term used in the gemstone industry to describe a gem that has no inclusions visible to the naked eye. This term is often used when discussing diamonds and other precious stones.
Eye Pin: Similar to a head pin but has a loop instead of a flat head at one end. It's used for linking components together in earrings, necklaces, and bracelets.

Facet: A flat, polished surface on a gemstone. Facets are cut into gemstones to enhance their brilliance by allowing light to reflect and refract within the stone.
Fancy Cut: A term used to describe any gemstone cut differently from the traditional round brilliant cut. This includes shapes like oval, marquise, pear, heart, and emerald cuts, among others.
Fashion Jewelry: Also known as costume jewelry, this type of jewelry is made with non-precious materials as an affordable alternative to fine jewelry. Fashion jewelry is often trendy and used to complement fashion styles.
Filigree: A delicate and intricate form of metalwork often used in jewelry design, featuring thin wires of metal twisted and soldered together to create decorative patterns.
Findings: Components used in jewelry making, such as clasps, ear wires, pin backs, jump rings, and bead caps. Findings are the parts that help to assemble the jewelry.
Finish: The final surface treatment or texture applied to a piece of jewelry, which can include polished, matte, brushed, hammered, and satin finishes, among others.
Fire: The dispersion of light into the colors of the spectrum, seen in gemstones as colorful flashes. This effect is particularly prized in diamonds.
Flask: A cylindrical container used to hold the investment material and the wax model during the casting process.
Flex Shaft Machine: A versatile, motor-driven tool with a flexible shaft used for drilling, grinding, carving, and polishing jewelry components. It accommodates various attachments for different tasks.
Flush Setting: A gemstone setting technique where the stone is set into a hole in the metal and the surface is made flush. Also known as a gypsy setting, it provides a sleek, smooth finish.
Fluorescence: A characteristic of some gemstones that makes them glow under ultraviolet light. Fluorescence can affect the color and appearance of a gemstone, especially under different lighting conditions.
Foilback: A technique used in costume jewelry where a piece of foil is placed behind a gemstone to enhance its color or brilliance. This is often seen in vintage and antique pieces.
Forging: A metalworking process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces, such as hammering. Forging is used in jewelry making to create unique textures and shapes.
French Wire: A thin, coiled wire used in earring design to create a hook (also known as a fish hook) that passes through the pierced earlobe. It provides a simple and elegant way to hang earrings.
Freshwater Pearls: Pearls that are cultivated in freshwater lakes and rivers, as opposed to saltwater pearls. They come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and colors, and are generally more affordable than saltwater pearls.
Fringe Necklace: A type of necklace featuring dangling elements that resemble a fringe. These can be made from chains, beads, gemstones, or other decorative components.
Frosting - A surface treatment applied to metal or gemstones to create a matte, textured finish. This is achieved through various methods, including sandblasting and acid etching.

Gallery: The decorative part of a ring or other piece of jewelry that supports the setting, often featuring intricate designs or filigree work, visible from the side or bottom.
Garnet: A group of silicate minerals that come in a wide range of colors, including red, green, orange, and others. Garnets are commonly used in jewelry and are known for their durability and vibrant colors.
Gemstone: A mineral, rock, or organic material that can be cut and polished or otherwise treated for use in jewelry or decorative items. Gemstones can be precious (such as diamonds, rubies, sapphires, and emeralds) or semi-precious (such as amethyst, citrine, and turquoise).
Gemstone Faceting Machine: A precision instrument used to cut, polish, and shape gemstones into specific designs. It allows the cutter to control angles and produce the facets that create a gem's brilliance.
Gilding: The process of applying a thin layer of gold to a surface, often used in jewelry to give a gold appearance to a less expensive metal.
Girdle: The outer edge or rim of a gemstone where the top (crown) meets the bottom (pavilion). It can be faceted, polished, or unpolished, and affects how the stone is set into jewelry.
Gold: A precious yellow metallic element, highly valued for its rarity, malleability, and radiant luster. Gold is commonly used in jewelry and is measured in karats to denote purity.
Gold Filled: A type of metal used in jewelry that involves bonding a layer of gold to a base metal. The gold layer must constitute at least 1/20th of the item's total weight. Gold-filled items are more durable and have a thicker layer of gold than gold-plated items.
Gold Plated: A method of coating a base metal with a thin layer of gold, typically using an electrochemical process. Gold plating provides the look of gold at a lower cost and can wear off over time.
Grain Setting: A type of gemstone setting in which tiny beads or "grains" of metal are raised from the surface to hold the stone in place. It's a technique often used in pavé and bead settings.
Gram: A metric unit of mass used to measure the weight of gemstones and metals in jewelry. One gram equals 0.0353 ounces.
Granulation: An ancient jewelry-making technique involving the application of tiny beads of metal to a surface to form patterns or decorative motifs, typically done in gold or silver.
Green Gold: Gold that has been alloyed with a higher proportion of silver or cadmium to achieve a greenish hue. This alloy is used in jewelry for its unique color.
Guilloché: A decorative technique in which a precise, intricate pattern is mechanically engraved into an underlying material, often seen in metal watch cases and the backs of pendants.
Gypsy Setting: A gemstone setting technique where the stone is set into a hole in the metal and the surface is made flush. It provides a sleek, smooth finish.

Hallmark: A mark or series of marks stamped on precious metal jewelry to certify its purity or origin.
Halo Setting: A ring setting in which the center gemstone is encircled by a "halo" of smaller diamonds or gemstones, enhancing its sparkle and making it appear larger.
Hammered Finish: A textured finish on metal created by hammering the surface, resulting in a faceted appearance that reflects light in various directions. This technique can add a rustic or handcrafted look to jewelry.
Hardness: A measure of a gemstone's ability to resist scratches and wear. The hardness is typically assessed using the Mohs scale, where diamonds rank as the hardest at 10.
Head: The part of a piece of jewelry, especially rings, that holds the gemstone in place. The head includes the prongs or bezel that secures the stone.
Head Pin: A straight pin with a flat head at one end, used to thread beads. The head stops the beads from falling off, and the opposite end can be looped to connect to other components.
Heart Cut: A gemstone cut into the shape of a heart, popular in romantic jewelry such as engagement rings and Valentine's Day gifts. The cut requires skilled craftsmanship to achieve the desired symmetry and brilliance.
Heirloom: A piece of jewelry passed down through generations within a family, often valued for its sentimental significance as much as its monetary value.
Herringbone Chain: A type of chain featuring short, slanted, parallel links in a sequence, giving it a distinctive, herringbone pattern. The chain has a flexible, smooth texture.
Hidden Clasp: A type of clasp that is integrated into the design of the jewelry piece so that it is not easily visible, maintaining the aesthetic continuity of the piece.
High Polish: A highly reflective, shiny finish achieved on metal jewelry by buffing it with a fine abrasive until it has a mirror-like surface.
Hinge: A flexible joint in a piece of jewelry, such as a bangle or locket, that allows it to open and close. Hinges are designed to be durable and blend seamlessly with the piece's design.
Hoops: Circular or semi-circular earrings that loop from the front of the earlobe to the back, available in various sizes and thicknesses. Hoops can be simple or embellished with gemstones, textures, or designs.
Hypoallergenic: Hypoallergenic jewelry refers to jewelry made from materials that are less likely to cause an allergic reaction when in contact with the skin. People with sensitive skin or allergies to certain metals, such as nickel, often opt for hypoallergenic jewelry to avoid irritation, rashes, or allergic reactions.

Illumination Setting: A setting designed to maximize the light entering a gemstone, enhancing its brilliance and sparkle. Similar to halo settings or other techniques that improve a stone's appearance through strategic placement of diamonds or reflective materials around it.
Illusion Setting: Designed to make the gemstone appear larger than it is, often by placing a faceted metal plate beneath the stone to increase its perceived size and enhance its sparkle. This setting is commonly used for smaller diamonds.
Inclusion: Internal flaws or imperfections in a gemstone, such as cracks, minerals, or other foreign materials. Inclusions can affect the clarity, value, and beauty of the stone but can also contribute to its uniqueness.
Ingot: A piece of relatively pure material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing, including gold, silver, and platinum ingots used in jewelry making.
Initial Charm: A charm featuring a letter of the alphabet, often used to represent the wearer's first or last name. Initial charms are a popular way to personalize jewelry.
Intaglio: A design carved into the surface of a material so that the image is recessed below the surface, opposite of cameo. Intaglios are often found in signet rings and were historically used for seals.
Investment: A special plaster-like material used to create a mold for casting. The wax model is encased in the investment, which hardens and then is heated to melt out the wax, leaving a cavity for the metal.
Invisible Setting: A setting technique where stones are fitted together without visible prongs, so that the surface appears to be a continuous expanse of the gemstone. This technique is often used with square or rectangular stones, creating a seamless surface.
Iridescence: A phenomenon where an object's surface appears to gradually change color as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes. Common in certain gemstones like opals, which display a play-of-color.
Ivory: A hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephant's) and teeth of animals, historically used in jewelry for carved pieces and inlays. Due to ethical and conservation concerns, the use of new ivory is heavily restricted and frowned upon in many countries.

Jade: A gemstone known for its green varieties, used in jewelry and ornamental art. Jade refers to two different minerals: nephrite, a silicate of calcium and magnesium, and jadeite, a silicate of sodium and aluminum. It's prized for its toughness and beauty.
Jasper: A variety of chalcedony (a form of quartz), known for its rich, opaque colors and patterns. Jasper is often used in cabochons and beads for jewelry, available in red, yellow, brown, green, and other colors.
Jewel: A precious or semi-precious stone that has been cut and polished for use in jewelry. The term can also refer to a piece of jewelry itself.
Jewelry: Objects made from precious metals or other materials, often set with gemstones, worn for personal adornment. Common forms include rings, necklaces, earrings, bracelets, and brooches.
Jump Ring: A small metal ring with a split in it, used in jewelry making to attach two components together, such as a charm to a bracelet or a clasp to a necklace. Jump rings can be opened and closed with pliers.
Jadeite: One of the two minerals referred to as jade, jadeite is the rarer and more valuable variety. It can come in a range of colors including green, lavender, orange, and white. The most prized jadeite is a vivid, emerald green known as "imperial jade."

Karat (K): A unit of measure for the purity of gold. Pure gold is 24 karats, indicating 24 parts gold out of 24. Gold jewelry often contains less gold; for example, 18K gold is 18 parts gold and 6 parts other metals.
Keshi Pearls: Small, non-nucleated pearls formed in mollusks that are culturing other pearls. Keshi pearls are known for their irregular shapes and high luster.
Keychain: A device used to hold keys, which can be made from a variety of materials including metal, plastic, and leather. Keychains can be decorative and incorporate elements of jewelry design.
Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS): An international certification system established to prevent conflict diamonds from entering the mainstream rough diamond market. It aims to assure consumers that the diamonds they purchase are conflict-free.
Kunzite: A pink to lilac-colored spodumene gemstone, named after the American mineralogist George Frederick Kunz. Kunzite is known for its strong pleochroism, appearing more intense in color from certain directions.
Kyanite: A typically blue aluminosilicate mineral, used as a gemstone. Kyanite can also occur in green, black, and orange varieties. It is distinctive for its two different hardnesses on perpendicular axes

Labradorite: A feldspar mineral known for its iridescent optical effect or schiller, often displaying beautiful colors like blue, green, and gold. It is popular in jewelry for its unique play of color.
Lapidary: The art of cutting, shaping, polishing, and engraving precious stones. A lapidary is a person who practices this art and works with gemstones to prepare them for use in jewelry.
Lariat: A type of necklace featuring a long chain or cord, often without a clasp, that is worn looped or tied in various ways. Lariats can be adorned with decorative elements like pendants or beads.
Laser Engraving: A technique that uses lasers to engrave or mark an object, often used on metal surfaces of jewelry to create designs, patterns, or personalized messages.
Laser Welder: A machine that uses a concentrated beam of light (laser) to melt and fuse metal parts together. It's used for precision welding of components in jewelry where traditional soldering might be too risky for the stones or surrounding metal.
Lavaliere: A pendant with a single large stone (often a diamond or pearl) that hangs from a chain necklace, sometimes featuring smaller stones. It dates back to the late 19th and early 20th centuries, popularized as a feminine and elegant jewelry piece.
Layering: Wearing multiple pieces of jewelry together, such as necklaces or bracelets, to create a rich, textured look. Layering allows for personal expression and can mix different lengths, styles, and materials.
Lever Back: A type of earring closure or fastening that uses a lever that closes behind the ear to secure the earring. Lever backs are known for their security and comfort.
Link: A single element of a chain, which can vary in shape, size, and design. Links are interconnected to form chains used in necklaces, bracelets, and other jewelry pieces.
Lobster Clasp: A common type of fastening used in jewelry that features a spring-loaded, self-closing mechanism. Shaped somewhat like a lobster's claw, it is considered secure and is easy to open and close.
Locket: A small, ornamental case, often worn as a pendant on a necklace, that opens to reveal space for a small photograph, lock of hair, or memento. Lockets are cherished for their sentimental value.
Lost Wax Casting: An method of metal casting in which a wax model is made of the item to be cast, then encased in plaster. Once the plaster hardens, the wax is melted and drained away, leaving a cavity that is then filled with molten metal to form the jewelry piece.
Loupe: A small magnifying glass used by jewelers to inspect gemstones, jewelry, and hallmarks. Loupes are tools for evaluating the quality and authenticity of gemstones and jewelry craftsmanship.

Marquise Cut: A type of gemstone cut that is elongated with pointed ends, resembling the shape of a football or an eye. This cut is often used to maximize the carat weight of a gemstone, giving it a larger appearance.
Matinee Necklace: A necklace that is typically 20 to 24 inches long, sitting at the bust line. It is a versatile length that works well with both casual and formal attire.
Melee: Small diamonds or gemstones that are usually less than 0.2 carats in weight. Melee stones are often used as accents in jewelry pieces to add sparkle and enhance the design.
Memory Charm: A charm designed to commemorate a special event, person, or moment in time, often personalized or inscribed with dates and names.
Millegrain (or Milgrain): A jewelry design technique in which a series of tiny bead shapes are added to the edges of a metal setting, giving it a textured decorative border. It's often seen in vintage and antique jewelry.
Mohs Scale: A scale of hardness used in mineralogy that ranks minerals based on their ability to scratch another mineral. The scale ranges from 1 (talc) to 10 (diamond), and is used to determine the durability of gemstones in jewelry.
Monogram: A motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or other graphemes to form one symbol. Monograms are often used in personalizing jewelry, such as pendants and signet rings.
Mother of Pearl: The iridescent lining found inside the shell of certain mollusks, such as oysters and abalones. It is used in jewelry and decoration for its shimmering beauty.
Mounting: The part of a piece of jewelry designed to hold a gemstone in place. This can refer to the entire structure of a ring (excluding the stone) or the specific setting technique used.
Mourning Jewelry: Jewelry made to commemorate or remember a loved one who has passed away. Traditionally, it was often made with black materials like jet or black enamel and might include hair from the deceased.

Nacre: The lustrous, iridescent substance secreted by mollusks that forms the inner layer of a pearl or the inside of a shell. Nacre is responsible for the unique glow of pearls and mother of pearl.
Navette: Another term for the marquise cut, referring to a gemstone shaped like a small boat (from the French word "navette" meaning "little ship"). It is characterized by its elongated oval shape with pointed ends.
Necklace: A piece of jewelry worn around the neck, which can be made from a variety of materials including metals, gemstones, beads, or pearls. Necklaces can range from simple chains to complex designs with multiple strands or pendants.
Negligee: A type of necklace that features two unequal strands of gems or chains that often terminate in decorative pendants. The asymmetry of a negligee necklace gives it a distinctive, elegant look.
Nickel: A metal commonly used in jewelry alloys, especially in white gold and sterling silver. Some people are allergic to nickel.
Nickel Silver: A metal alloy made of copper, nickel, and zinc. Despite its name, it contains no silver and is used as a base metal in costume jewelry, often plated with a thin layer of actual silver.
Niello: A black or dark metallic alloy of sulfur with silver, copper, or lead, used as an inlay on engraved or etched metal. The technique creates a stark contrast and is often seen in silver work from Thailand and other cultures.
Noble Metal: A term used to describe metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air, such as gold, silver, and platinum. Noble metals are highly valued in jewelry making for their durability and luster.
Nugget: A raw or slightly refined piece of gold, silver, or another precious metal, often used in jewelry to give a natural or rustic appearance.

Opal: A gemstone known for its unique play-of-color, displaying many colors in certain lights.
Opaque: A term used to describe materials that do not allow light to pass through. In jewelry making, opaque gemstones are those that are completely non-transparent and cannot be seen through.
Open-Back Setting: A type of setting in which the back of the gemstone is exposed, allowing light to pass through and enhance the stone's brilliance and color. This setting is often used for transparent or translucent stones.
Oval Cut: A type of gemstone cut that is elliptical in shape, providing a large surface area that maximizes the stone's color and brilliance. It's a popular cut for many types of gemstones.
Overlay: A technique in jewelry making where a layer of one metal is placed over a base metal, and patterns are then cut out to expose the metal underneath. 
Oxidation: A chemical process that occurs when metal is exposed to oxygen and sometimes sulfur, resulting in a change in color on the surface of the metal. In jewelry making, oxidation can be deliberately induced using chemicals to create a darkened or antique look on parts of the metal surface.

Pave Setting: A setting style where small diamonds or gemstones are set close together, covering the surface of the jewelry with stones to create a continuous sparkle. The stones are held in place with tiny beads of metal, making them appear paved.
Patina: The surface coloration that forms on metal, especially copper and its alloys, due to oxidation over time. In jewelry making, patinas can be applied intentionally through various techniques to achieve a desired aesthetic effect.
Patination: A process used to develop a surface coloration on metal, often achieved through chemical treatment. Patination can give jewelry an aged or unique finish.
Pearl: A gemstone created inside the shell of a mollusk when an irritant enters. Layers of nacre are secreted around the irritant, forming a pearl. Pearls are valued for their luster and are used in various types of jewelry.
Pendant: A piece of jewelry that hangs from a chain or cord, which can be worn around the neck. Pendants can come in various shapes, sizes, and designs, often featuring gemstones, symbols, or decorative art.
Pickling: A process in jewelry making where a piece is cleaned in an acidic solution to remove surface oxidation and flux residues after soldering. This step is essential for preparing the metal for further finishing or polishing.
Plating: The process of coating a metal surface with a thin layer of another metal, typically using electroplating. Common plating include gold plating, silver plating, and rhodium plating, used to enhance appearance or prevent tarnishing.
Polishing: The process of smoothing and enhancing the surface of a metal piece to produce a high shine. Polishing is achieved using various techniques and materials, including polishing cloths, compounds, and buffing wheels.
Polishing Machine: A device equipped with buffing wheels that polish metal and gemstones to a high shine. It often uses different grits and compounds to achieve a smooth and reflective surface.
Prong Setting: A common method of securing a gemstone in jewelry, where metal prongs extend from the base of the setting and are bent over the gem to hold it in place. This setting allows maximum light exposure to the stone, enhancing its brilliance.
Punch: A tool used in metalworking and jewelry making to stamp or press designs onto a metal surface, or to create holes. Punches come in various shapes and sizes for different design applications.
Pure Gold: Gold that is 24 karats, meaning it is 100% gold without any other metals mixed in. Pure gold is too soft for most jewelry use, so it is often alloyed with other metals for increased strength and durability.

Quartz: A hard, crystalline mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms. Varieties like amethyst and citrine are used in jewelry.
Quatrefoil: A decorative element consisting of a symmetrical pattern that forms the outline of four partially overlapping circles of the same diameter. In jewelry, the quatrefoil motif is often used in designs to add elegance and historical reference, commonly seen in Gothic and Renaissance art.
Quenching: Rapidly cooling hot metal in water or oil to harden it. This process is often used after annealing to finish the tempering of the metal.

Repoussé: A metalworking technique in which a malleable metal is ornamented or shaped by hammering from the reverse side to create a design in low relief. This age-old technique is used to create intricate patterns and textures on jewelry and metal art.
Reticulation: A technique used to create a textured surface on metal through controlled heating. The surface of the metal wrinkles, creating a unique finish often used for decorative effects in jewelry.
Rhodium Plating: A process of coating jewelry with a layer of rhodium, a precious metal that is part of the platinum family. Rhodium plating is used to increase shine, luster, and durability, and to give white gold its bright white appearance.
Riveting: A cold connection metalworking technique where a rivet (a small metal pin or bolt) is used to join two pieces of metal together without the use of heat. This method is ideal for joining different types of metals or adding decorative elements to jewelry.
Rolling Mill: A machine used to alter the shape and thickness of metal. The metal is passed through two rollers which compress it. Rolling mills can also imprint textures onto the metal with patterned rollers.
Rolo Chain: A type of chain featuring links that are typically round and symmetrical. Rolo chains are known for their durability and are often used for charm bracelets and other jewelry pieces where a stronger chain is desirable.
Rose Cut: A style of gemstone cutting that features a flat bottom and a domed top covered in triangular facets. This cut dates back to the 16th century and is experiencing a resurgence in popularity for its vintage look.
Rose Gold: An alloy of gold tinted with copper to give it a rosy hue. The amount of copper added varies to create different intensities of color. Rose gold is appreciated for its warmth and is used in many types of jewelry.
Rough: The term used to describe gemstones in their natural, uncut state before they have been cut and polished into the finished gemstones used in jewelry.
Rub-over Setting: Another term for a bezel setting, where the metal is shaped into a ring that surrounds the gemstone, holding it in place. The edges of the metal are then pressed over the gemstone. This setting style is known for its clean lines and modern appearance, as well as for the protection it offers the stone.

Sawing: The process of using a jeweler's saw, a fine-toothed saw, to cut intricate shapes out of metal sheets or to remove excess metal. This technique is fundamental in creating detailed and precise designs in jewelry making.
Semi-precious Stones: Gemstones that, while beautiful and valuable, are not classified among the four "precious" stones (diamond, ruby, sapphire, emerald). Examples include amethyst, garnet, opal, and citrine. These stones are widely used in jewelry for their colors, textures, and meanings.
Setting: The part of jewelry that holds a gemstone in place. Settings can vary widely in style and technique, including prong, bezel, pave, and channel settings, each providing a different look and level of security for the stone.
Slider Charm: Similar to bead charms, slider charms have a larger opening that allows them to slide onto a bracelet or necklace. They are typically flat and can feature engravings, gemstones, or other decorative elements.
Soldering: A process used to join two pieces of metal together by melting a filler metal (solder) into the joint. Soldering is a fundamental skill in jewelry making, used for assembling pieces and adding components.
Spacer Bead: Small beads used between larger beads in a piece of jewelry to add detail or to allow the design to flow better visually.
Spacer Charm: A smaller charm used to create space between other charms on a bracelet or necklace, often enhancing the overall design and preventing larger charms from crowding together.
Split Ring: Similar to a jump ring but made of two complete turns of a coil, resembling a mini key ring. It provides a more secure connection than a standard jump ring.
Sprue: A channel through which molten metal is poured into the mold. The sprue also allows gases to escape during the casting process.
Stamping: A technique involving the use of a hammer and steel stamps to create impressions on metal surfaces. Stamping can be used for decorative purposes, to create patterns, or to mark jewelry with letters, numbers, or symbols.
Sterling Silver: An alloy of silver containing 92.5% by weight of silver and 7.5% by weight of other metals, usually copper. The standard for fine silver in jewelry making, sterling silver is prized for its brightness and malleability.
Stone Setting: The craft of securely attaching gemstones into jewelry. Stone setting requires precision and can be accomplished through various methods, each offering a different aesthetic and level of protection for the stone.
Strand: Refers to a length of pearls, beads, or other small components that have been threaded together, typically on string or wire. Strands can be used as is for necklaces or bracelets, or they can be incorporated into more complex jewelry designs.
Synthetic Gemstones: Lab-created gemstones that have the same chemical, physical, and optical properties as natural gemstones. Synthetic gemstones offer a more affordable and ethical alternative to their natural counterparts, with consistent quality and appearance.

Talisman Charm: A charm believed to bring good luck or protection to the wearer. Talisman charms often feature symbols, animals, or amulets associated with spiritual or cultural significance.
Table: The top facet or the flat surface on the crown of a gemstone. It's the largest facet on a stone and plays a significant role in its brilliance and the way light interacts with the gemstone.
Tarnish: A thin layer of corrosion that forms on metals, such as silver and copper, as their outermost layer undergoes a chemical reaction. Tarnish can be removed through polishing or chemical cleaners designed for jewelry.
Tension Setting: The gemstone is held in place by the tension of the metal band pushing into the sides of the stone. It creates the illusion of the stone floating. Tension settings require precise calibration and strong metal for security.
Texture: The feel, appearance, or consistency of a metal surface. In jewelry making, various techniques are used to create texture, such as hammering, engraving, or applying a satin finish, to enhance the visual appeal of the piece.
Theme Charm: A charm that represents a specific theme, interest, hobby, or occasion, such as travel landmarks, animals, sports, and holidays. Theme charms allow wearers to personalize their jewelry to reflect their interests and experiences.
Tigertail: A type of beading wire that is flexible and coated with nylon. It is composed of multiple strands of thin steel wire, making it strong and durable for stringing beads and creating beaded jewelry.
Toggle Clasp: A clasp that consists of a ring on one end and a short bar (toggle) on the other. The bar is inserted through the ring to secure the piece. Toggle clasps are not only functional but can also serve as a decorative element in a necklace or bracelet.
Tool Marks: Visible marks left on a piece of jewelry by hammers, pliers, or other tools used in its creation. While some jewelers strive to minimize tool marks for a smooth finish, others intentionally leave them as a testament to the handcrafted nature of the piece.
Torque Necklace: A type of necklace that is rigid and open-ended at the front. Often made from metal, torque necklaces are designed to sit around the neck with the opening at the front, making a statement piece.
Tube Setting: A method of setting a gemstone into a cylindrical tube of metal. The top of the tube is flared outwards to hold the gemstone in place. This setting style is clean and modern, often used for round gemstones.
Tumbling : A finishing technique in which jewelry pieces are placed in a barrel along with abrasive grit, water, and sometimes polishing compounds. The barrel is then rotated, causing the contents to gently grind against each other, resulting in a polished finish on the jewelry.

Ultrasonic Cleaner: A device that uses ultrasonic waves and a cleaning solution to clean intricate jewelry pieces. It's particularly effective for removing dirt and grime from hard-to-reach areas without damaging the jewelry.
Undercarriage: The part of a ring that sits under the setting or the main part of the piece. It's not directly visible when the ring is worn, but it can affect the overall design and how the ring sits on the finger.
Undercut: A cut made below the surface of a gemstone or in the metal of a piece of jewelry. In gemstones, it can affect the brilliance and the stability of the stone in its setting. In metalwork, it can be used for decorative purposes or to create a space to set stones.
Universal Ring Sizer: A tool used to determine ring sizes. It typically consists of a set of rings in various sizes that can be tried on to find the best fit, or a sliding gauge that can be adjusted to measure a finger's size.
U-Pin Setting: A type of setting used for securing gemstones in jewelry, where metal pins shaped like the letter "U" are used to hold the stone in place. This setting allows for maximum visibility of the stone while keeping it secure.
Ultrasonic Welding: A process used to join pieces of metal together using high-frequency ultrasonic acoustic vibrations. It's a solid-state welding process that is often used for making precise and clean joins in delicate pieces.
Unakite: A type of semi-precious stone used in jewelry making. Unakite is a form of granite composed of pink orthoclase feldspar, green epidote, and generally clear quartz. It's known for its mottled green and pink appearance and is often used in beadwork and cabochon settings.

Vacuum Casting:
A method where a vacuum is used to draw molten metal into the mold. This technique helps to reduce air bubbles and defects in the casting.
Vermeil: A type of gold-finished jewelry made by coating sterling silver with a thin layer of gold, typically using the process of electroplating. The gold layer must be at least 10 karats and 2.5 micrometers thick.
Vitreous Enamel: A material used in jewelry and decorative arts, made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing. The glass powder melts, flows, and then hardens to a smooth, durable vitreous coating on metal, glass, or ceramic. Commonly used in the art of enameling.
Vulcanite: A hard, black or brown material made by vulcanizing rubber, used in the 19th century for making jewelry. It was popular as an inexpensive alternative to jet and was often used in mourning jewelry.
V-Spring and Box Clasp: A type of clasp used in jewelry where a V-shaped spring mechanism fits into a box-shaped metal piece. This clasp is commonly used for securing bracelets and necklaces.
V-End Prong: A type of prong setting in jewelry where the end of the prong is cut into a V shape. This setting is particularly useful for securing marquise or pear-shaped stones, providing protection to the pointed ends of the gemstone.
Vulcanized Rubber Molds: Molds made from rubber that has been vulcanized, or treated with sulfur at high temperature, to improve its elasticity and strength. These molds are used in the casting process to create replicas of original jewelry designs.
Vent Hole: A small hole in a casting mold that allows air and gases to escape when molten metal is poured into the mold. Vent holes help prevent air pockets and defects in the final casting.
Verdigris: A green or bluish deposit formed on copper, brass, or bronze surfaces due to oxidation or exposure to acetic acid. While often considered undesirable, it can also be used intentionally for its aesthetic effect in certain jewelry designs.

Wax Carving: A method of making jewelry models by hand-carving shapes out of wax. These wax models are then used in the lost wax casting process to create metal jewelry pieces.
Wax Model: A replica of the final jewelry piece made in wax. This model is used to create the mold into which the metal will be cast.
Water Casting: A technique where molten metal is poured into water to create unique, organic shapes. The rapid cooling and solidification of the metal result in unpredictable and interesting forms that can be incorporated into jewelry designs.
Water Resistance: Indicates the ability of a watch to withstand splashes of water or rain. Higher ratings also include suitability for swimming or diving.
Wire Wrapping: A technique that involves bending wire to create intricate patterns and structures without the need for soldering. Wire wrapping is used to secure gemstones and to create decorative elements in jewelry.
Wire Gauge: A measurement system used to determine the thickness of wire. In jewelry making, the gauge of wire can significantly affect the design and functionality of a piece. Higher gauge numbers indicate thinner wires.
White Gold: An alloy of gold mixed with white metals such as palladium, silver, and nickel, often coated with a thin layer of rhodium to enhance its whiteness and durability. 
Wax Model: A model of a jewelry piece created in wax. This model is used in the lost wax casting process, where it is replaced by molten metal to form the final jewelry piece.
Welo Opal: A type of opal from the Welo Amhara Regional State in Ethiopia, known for its bright play-of-color in a variety of patterns. Welo opals are prized for their beauty and are used in a wide range of jewelry pieces.
Wire Drawing: The process of pulling metal wire through a series of progressively smaller dies to reduce its diameter and lengthen it. This technique is used to create wire in different thicknesses for various jewelry applications.
Work Hardening: The process of hardening metal through manipulation, such as bending, twisting, or hammering. Work hardening increases the strength and durability of the metal but can also make it more brittle if overdone.
Wax Injection: A technique used in casting where molten wax is injected into a metal mold to create a detailed wax model. This model can then be used for casting metal parts through the lost wax process.
Wearable Art: Jewelry that is designed and created as unique pieces of art to be worn. This term emphasizes the artistic and expressive qualities of the jewelry, beyond its decorative or functional aspects.

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF): A non-destructive analytical technique used to determine the elemental composition of materials. In jewelry, it's often used to test the purity of precious metals and to identify various elements in gemstones without damaging them.
X-axis: In gemology, the x-axis refers to one of the three axes used to describe the orientation of crystals or the optical properties of gemstones. The x-axis, along with the y-axis and z-axis, helps in understanding the symmetry and optical phenomena in gemstones.
X-ray Diffraction (XRD): Another non-destructive analytical technique, X-ray diffraction is used to identify the crystalline structure of minerals. This can be particularly useful in gemology for identifying gemstones that are difficult to differentiate with more conventional methods.

Yellow Gold: A popular alloy of gold that includes a mixture of gold, copper, and sometimes zinc or silver, giving the metal a warm yellow color. The karat value determines its purity, commonly available in 14K, 18K, and 22K.
Yoke: In jewelry design, a yoke refers to a part of a necklace or chain that is designed to sit around the neck's sides and shoulders, often structured to distribute weight or to enhance the piece's aesthetic appeal.
YAG (Yttrium Aluminum Garnet): A synthetic gemstone that serves as a diamond simulant. YAG can be produced in various colors but is most commonly known for its clear form that closely resembles a diamond.
Yellow Sapphire: A precious gemstone that belongs to the corundum family, ranging in color from light lemon to deep gold. Yellow sapphires are valued for their durability, brilliance, and color and are often used in fine jewelry.

Zircon: A natural gemstone known for its high refractive index and strong dispersion, qualities that give it a brilliant sparkle similar to a diamond. Zircon comes in a variety of colors, including blue, red, yellow, orange, and colorless.
Zamak: A family of alloys primarily made from zinc, aluminum, magnesium, and copper. Zamak is used in jewelry making for its strength, durability, and cost-effectiveness. It can be plated with various metals to achieve a desired finish.
Zinc: A metallic element used as an alloying agent in the production of various types of jewelry metals, including brass and bronze. Zinc is added to copper to create brass, and it is also used in small amounts in gold and silver alloys to improve their strength and workability.
Zoisite: A mineral that can occur in several different forms, including the precious gemstone tanzanite. Zoisite can be found in a range of colors, but tanzanite, its blue to violet variety, is especially prized in jewelry for its unique hues.
Zirconium: A chemical element often used in its crystalline form to create cubic zirconia (CZ), a synthetic gemstone used as an affordable alternative to diamonds. Zirconium can also be transformed into a metal known as zirconium metal, which is used in some types of contemporary jewelry for its strong, corrosion-resistant properties.
Zigzag Setting: A type of setting in jewelry where stones are set in a zigzag pattern along a band or around the perimeter of a piece. This setting style can add dynamic visual interest and texture to a piece of jewelry.

3D Printer: A machine that creates three-dimensional objects from a digital file, using materials like resin or metal. In jewelry making, 3D printers can produce complex designs and models for casting.
925: A common marking found on sterling silver jewelry, indicating that the piece is made of 92.5% silver and 7.5% other metals, usually copper. This composition is an international standard for sterling silver.
10K gold: Refers to a gold alloy that is 10 parts gold and 14 parts other metals, making it 41.7% gold and 58.3% other metals.
18K Gold: Indicates that the piece of jewelry is made of 18 parts gold and 6 parts of other metals, making it 75% gold. The "K" stands for karat, a measure of the purity of gold. 18K gold is prized for its rich color and relatively high durability.
14K Gold: Similar to 18K gold, this marking means the jewelry is composed of 14 parts gold and 10 parts of other metals, totaling 58.3% gold. 14K gold is popular for its balance of color, durability, and affordability.
24K Gold: Represents gold that is 99.9% pure or nearly pure. Because of its purity, 24K gold is quite soft and malleable, making it less suitable for certain types of jewelry that require durability.
950 Platinum: A hallmark that signifies the piece is made of 95% platinum and 5% other metals. Platinum is known for its weight, durability, and hypoallergenic properties, making it a premium metal for jewelry.
10X Loupe: A magnifying tool used by jewelers and gemologists to inspect gemstones and jewelry. The "10X" means it magnifies the object ten times its actual size, which is the standard magnification level for grading gemstones.
3-Stone Ring: A ring design featuring three stones set closely together, with the center stone often being slightly larger or differently colored. 
4 Cs: Refers to the four main factors used to determine the quality and value of a diamond: Cut, Color, Clarity, and Carat Weight. The 4 Cs are essential in evaluating the overall quality of a diamond.
8/0 or 11/0 Beads: These numbers refer to the size of seed beads, with the number indicating how many beads fit into a standard measure. The larger the number, the smaller the bead. For example, 11/0 beads are smaller than 8/0 beads. Seed beads are commonly used in bead weaving and jewelry making for their versatility and range of colors.